Vocabulary Learning For Students

Vocabulary Learning For Students - Few students are interested in learning about the word. New research suggests that it is best for students to learn words by meaning, an activity approach.

As they write responses in journals, talk about the books they've read, and build networks and charts in a single theme cycle, students learn to nurture the meaning of words and how to choose the best word for Expressing ideas. This paper will talk about how to add a new word to form a vocabulary.

Learning about words is how to choose one of the correct words to reveal the meaning you mean. Vocabulary not only coding or identifying words but more focused on its meaning. Choosing the best word to reveal meaning is important to all language users.

When we hear and read, we must understand the meaning of what others are meant to be. When we speak and write, we must choose the right word so that the person who hears or reads understands our message.

Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Concepts
Vocabulary Learning

Words are the meaning-bearing units of language. A word is a unit of meaning-relationship in language. According to the word KBBI is a language element spoken or written YG is a manifestation of the unity of feelings and thoughts that can be used in language.

Looking Closely at Words

Three-quarters of a million words in English, most people only use about 20,000, and most of the words we used to use come from the body of about 5,000 to 7,000 words. The words we mastered are very limited. We use the word overlapping, but separately on listening, speaking, reading and writing vocabulary.

For example, know the word obfuscate when listening or reading, but fewer of us use it to speak or write. For various reasons, our vocabulary in reading and hearing is wider than speaking and writing vocabulary.

We may be afraid of missaying or misspelling a word, or perhaps we are afraid of what our friends think if we use the word in the conversation.

The words we use characterize us in several ways: by our choice of words, based on our pronunciation, and by means of stringing words in a sentence.

Words in our personal vocabulary reflect varying degrees of word knowledge. Klein (1988) divides our personal vocabulary, which he calls  "dictionaries, " into three tiers:
1. Dictionary ownership for words that we already know and have competent;
2. Intermediate-level dictionaries, which can be accessed with contextual help; Dan
3. Low-level dictionaries, which consist of words that little we know and when used can make a mistake.

We have each of the three levels of dictionaries in our heads, and when we learn a new word, usually the word goes in a low-or middle-level dictionary. After you have added an additional experience or instruction, the word will be transferred into the proprietary dictionary.

Understanding English History and how words come into the language has a great contribution to understanding the words and their meanings. English is a historical language, and this fact explains the meaning of the word and some inconsistent spelling.

English has a variety of words for a singular concept, and the history of English in general and the etymology of the word, in particular, explains the obvious duplication.

Note the words related to water: aquatic, hydrant, aquamarine, waterfall, hydroelectric, watercress, watery, aquarium, waterproof, hydraulic, aqualung, and hydrogen.

These words have one of the three roots that each means water: water is English, while Aqua is Latin and Hydro is Greek. The root word used depends on the person creating the word, the purpose of the word, and when the word enters English.

The development of the English language is divided into three periods, namely ancient English, Middle English, and modern English. The beginning and end of each of these periods are characterized by important events, such as invasion or discovery.

1. Old English/Ancient English (450-1100)
The recorded history of the English language began in 449, when the German tribes, including the Angles and the Saxons, invaded England. The English language begins with the blend of dialects spoken by the Angles, Saxons, and other German tribes in England.

Many people assume that the English language is based on Latin, but it has the roots of the German language and is brought to England by these invaders. Although 85% of words from Old English are no longer used, many everyday words remain in use (e.g. child, foot, hand, house, man, mother, old, and Sun).

Ancient English has several word loans (words borrowed from other languages and put into English). Through contact with other cultures, foreign words began to be deposited into German-dominated word storage.

Borrowed words come from two main sources: Romans and Vikings. A number of words were borrowed from the Latin and incorporated into English. In many ways, ancient English is more like modern German than Modern English.

2. Middle English/Middle English (1100-1500)
An event that occurred in 1066 of the Norman conquest, changed its use of ancient English into central English.  The central English period is one of the extraordinary changes.

Most Old English vocabulary is gone. 10.000 French words are added to the language, reflecting Norman's impact on the life and Society of England. It includes military words (soldier, Victory), political words (government, princess), health word (physician, surgeon), and words related to the field of art (comedy, music, poet).

During this period there was a significant decline in the use of inflection or suffix words. Many irregular verbs are missing, but are developed in regular past and past participle forms (such as, climb, talk), although Modern English still retains some irregular verbs (e.g., sing, fly).

A thousand-S is used to be a plural marker, although the ancient English plural marker-en is used in a few words; This word remains in several plural forms, such as children.

Learn About Word History

The best source of information about word history is the complete dictionary that provides basic etymological information about words: Borrowing words from other languages, the form of words in that language or Representation of the word in our alphabet, and the original meaning of Words.

The etymology is flanked by square brackets and may appear at the beginning or end of a note. They are written in an abbreviated form to save space, and they use abbreviations for language names such as Ar for Arabic and L for Latin languages.

We will see three etymologies for words coming from Very different sources: King, kimono, and thermometer. Each etymology comes from The Random House Dictionary of The English Language (Flexner, 1987). We will translate and explain each etymology using the process we call Extrapolation. For example the word king:

King [bef. 900; ME, OE Cyng] Extrapolation: The King's word in ancient English was originally spelled Cyng. This Used in English before 900. In the Middle English period, spelling was changed to its current form.

Students ' vocabulary grows at a rate of about 3,000 words per year (Nagy & Herman, 1985). Through the unit of focus literature and the theme cycle, experiment students with words and concepts, and their knowledge of words and cultivate meaning.

Children consider that each word has only one meaning, and words that sound the same, like the Son and Sun (the sun), are confusing for them. Through continuous experience with the language, students become smarter at understanding the literal and figurative words and meanings.

As long as students are at SD level, students learn about words and levels of word, words that mean the same and opposite words, words that sound the same, words with multiple meanings, figurative language idioms, and how words are borrowed from the language in All over the world. They also learned about how words were created and enjoyed playing with words (Tompkins, 1994).

Synonyms and antonym

Synonyms are words that have the same meaning or are almost identical to other words. Synonyms are useful because they give options, allowing us to express ourselves more thoroughly. For example, the word flower synonyms are hibiscus, the word thirst synonym is thirst, and the synonym of the word shirt is clothing.

An antonym is words that reveal the opposite meaning. For example, the old word antonym is young, the big word antonym is small, and the word antonym is hot is cold.

Homonym

Homonym are words that have similarities in voice and spelling. The Homonym is divided into three categories: Homofon, homographs, and Homograph homographs.

Homofon is the same sound words but the writing/spelling is different. Homofon is fully formed from the roots of different words and just happens to have the same sound. E.g:
a. Bank (meaning place to save money) and Bang (nickname for older brother)
b. Mass (community) and time (period)
c. Sangsi (indecisive/hesitant) and sanctions (punishment)

Homographs are words that are of the same text but the sounds are different. Example:
a. He eats apples (fruit) after the apple (ceremony) in the field.
b. The Office of the Patio (the main officer) sits leisurely on the terrace (front floor of the house) while reading news in the newspaper about the farm in the patio area (a slope of flat land in the hills).
c. Police attack (visit to attack) criminals in Serang District (place name).

Homograph Homophon (in Indonesian called Homonym) are words whose writings and sounds are the same, but different meanings. E.g:
a. Book (section) and book (book)
b. Can (CAN) and can (poison snake)
c. Bear (animal) and bear (have Money)
d. Meetings (BERDEMPET-DEMPET) and meetings

Multiple Meaning (Polysemi)

Many words have more than one meaning. According to KBBI Polisemi is a form of language (words, phrases, etc.) that have the meaning of more than one. Example:

a. The word "King"
1) Rhoma Rhythms of the Dangdut King are conducting a concert in Surabaya.
The word king means senior of all circles of singers
2) The forest King is hunting for Mangonannya in the forest.
The king said the forest ruler
3) The King of Majapahit Kingdom is holding a contest.
The word king means the ruler/leader of the region

b. The word "fruit"
1) apple fruit is by the characteristic of Malang.
Fruit word means fruit
2) Ayana has a fruity heart named Nabila.
Word fruit means the child
3) Nazar brings the hand of Madura city.   
Word Fruit meaningful souvenirs

c. The word "head"
1) The headache of Alya thinks of mathematical tasks.
Word head meaningful limbs
2) My father became a disciplined head of the family.
The word head means Family Leader
3) Head of Bank BCA branch in the Yogyakarta area.
The word head means a branch office or a central

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